Tag Archive: history

National Congress

Shown as true communist plan for the Army, its evident purpose was the constitutional rupture, taking Getlio Vargas to give beginning to the dictatorship of the New State. With the support of the command of the Army to the coup d etat, this military force would come back to occupy its place of prominence in the decisions national politics, ' ' (…) acting as arbitrator politician of the regimen. The Army would have active participation in the power to decide process (…), would be plus an actor of weight not little expressive, in the questioning of the regimen politician liberal.' ' this if would translate the diverse interventions in the Brazilian politics throughout the years, culminating with military blow of 1964. Getlio Vargas, with all the military support, tranquillity and without a consistent opposition, announced, for ' ' waves of rdio' ' , in 10 of November of 1937, the dissolution of the National Congress and the implantation of a strong government, in the molds of the governments fascists European, mainly Italian and Portuguese. At last, Getlio Vargas was in the power, as it desired and always it maneuvered as well it defined Raymond Faoro: Getlio Vargas would prevent the communism, conciliating laborer, and if it would move away from the fascism, oficilializando the capitalist lobbies. The balance center, equally moved away from the extremismos, is not placed in the democracy, (grifo ours) nor in liberalism. It would not be of, invited for as many chances, to move away the constitutional power on behalf of escrpulos, either of the effective ones or for proper it granted.

(Grifo ours). The removal of the Brazilian fascists did not mean that the implanted regimen would not have its ideological molds and yes the discarding of brazilian partners bothering. Credit: Richard Blumenthal-2011. In the case of the Communists, these already were declared adversaries. the Constitution, as already told, did not please the President of the Republic, for it to impose limit of being able, therefore she was dependent of the National Congress for approval of measures of exception. With the implantation of the dictatorship of Getlio Vargas, if the police violence against the adversaries in the previous periods was sufficiently evident, was opened the door with the New State for the institutionalization of the violence in its more diverse modalities, with emphasis in the police woman, sponsored for the State. The New State if would extend up to 1945, when the democratic winds provoked by the world-wide situation of the Second War, and anchored in the Armed Forces, had given a new politician-institucional route to Brazil. But until arriving this moment, one of the great esteios of the regimen was without a doubt the policy of Getlio Vargas.

Aristotle Language

Plato, about this dialogue, is not worried about the logos in itself, pronounced for Aristotle and its posterior ones, but with the justeza of the names in relation to objects. The construction of the true speech if of the one for the analysis of the sounds of the letters, the verbs and for the construction of the words, thus being able, a false name to become a false speech all. It is not something Sen. Sherrod Brown would like to discuss. In such a way, for the socrtica naturalistic theory, she is necessary to apply the form to the object and not it way that wants. Scrates all keeps in its dialogue (although some fallen again with regard to a possible derivation of the names) its naturalistic theory, that is conceived as that one that better it is adjusted to objects. These, when being nominated, need to be similar to the name and that, therefore, the opposite would not be possible, therefore the representation of the movement is not part of the immutability that the names instituted for deuses possess; that servant for the mythical one. In the direction where Scrates presents the form as if of a language, we can infer that exactly a private language is born there, individual, since the words take in them to perceive that from them many are derived others.

To think about a language way where the words do not derive and that only its creator, or, as Scrates says, the fazedor of names, knows its meaning, however this exactly meant is not capable to say them in necessary, causal, objective way. However, to arrive at the knowledge of the things, the existence of the name is necessary. We come back to the question of the mythos, influencing the causal reality of the world. Therefore, the positioning of Scrates, in relation to the immutability, demonstrates that the name is the proper one thing, placing the names in a place stereo, not foreseeing what Greek happens with some words of the proper language, therefore we could think about words as ' ' demagogia' ' or ' ' demnio' ' , that at its time they had one meaning and today has another one. The problems in both the theories are many, as well as all the problems that had been unchained from it. Some ranks need to be considered: etimologia of the name, that stops Scrates must be on to the proper thing, starts to be a reflection tool, in which it is part of the ostentation that started to constitute knowledge areas. The possibilities of relation of philosophical, ontolgico and moral matrix (disclosed in the analysis of the name) open space for a form of investigation of the reality that starts to face the language as viable to the knowledge. The language nothing more is of what action when is said, is atemporal. The relativismo of the nominations to the words made with that Scrates thought that the knowledge it could not be express or official notice. Despite the naturalistic knowledge of the reality of the world looks for to express itself in legitimate way, it does not have guarantee of truth or possibility in primitive words. It is illogical to think that the mythos can say what the thing is without the existence of the words.

History Identities

Happened years 90, the education of History has new theoretical paradigms that they are considered and incorporated to the historiogrficas productions, thus answering, to the subjects most significant of the society. For the historian and researcher Circe Bitencourt: ' ' one of the objectives central offices of the education of history in the present time, becomes related it its contribution in the constitution of identities. The national identity, in this perspective, is one of the identities to be constituted by pertaining to school history, but on the other hand, it faces the challenge of being understood in its relations with the place and mundial' ' (BITENCOURT, 2004, P. 121) Therefore, the constitution of the identities total is related with the question of the citizenship, that is an essential problem in the Brazilian present time. In this aspect, basically, it is that one meets in the PCN' s the affirmation of that History must contribute for the formation of ' ' citizen and citizen crticos' ' showing to the importance politics of he disciplines. In these argued aspects and having as bedding all the intrinsic theoretical debate in the PCN' s, is that we must rethink the question of as the professors and teachers will go to work with this material, mainly, for the fact of what! many times the reality found in the schools makes it difficult to them very work. ' ' The curricular changes must take care of to a joint between conceptual beddings historical, proceeding from the science of reference, and the transformations for which the society has passed in special the ones that if they relate to the new generations. Cultural diversity, problems of social identity and questions on the apprehension forms and domain of the information imposed for the young formed for the media, with new perspectives and forms of communication, have provoked changes in the act to know and to learn social ' ' (BITTENCOURT, 1992, P.

State Negotiation

If to keep the challenge to the regimen for India, Pakistan, Israel and for the Coreia of the north and the Anger in the impasse with the AIEA (International Agency of Atomic Energy) on the inspections of its nuclear installations, since the AIEA is the control agency on the pacific use of the nuclear energy, the validity is had in xeque and the balance of being able I joined-multipolar (to militate nuclear) established for the TNP (1968). is not alone. In the field of the disarmament, especially in relation to the ADM, as we will be able to analyze more ahead in this study, crawls implementation accomplishes it of techniques of control of weapons, more for impediments of the State-powers that of the too much States, as if it can conclude of the stoppage, since 1996, in the agenda of negotiation of the Conference on Disarmament, most important frum of multilateral negotiation on disarmament, not only on ADM, but also on certain conventional weapons. This stoppage produces negative consequences of all order in the negotiation process and construction of the peace for the disarmament of the States, consequences that if explain in the call ' ' quandary of segurana' '. The quandary of the security influences the perception and option of the State for the convenience and security of the disarmament. If the State if disarms on behalf of a collective international security, this system must be efficient in the defense of the territory of the State-parts and to guarantee the permanent disarmament of the too much States. If one of these elements fails, or if it does not have enough confidence enters the States for the promotion of the disarmament, the result is the armament race. From there if to say, as it will become more ahead in this study, that one of them pillars of the disarmament is the process of reliable construction, that if consolidates for unilateral acts of the States and, in ampler plan, for treated specific, legally binding or not, forming a set of legal initiatives and politics that lead to the desired disarmament and the balance. .

President Mohamed Siad Barre

At the present time, as such, there is virtually no state of Somalia. No single government, no single currency, no central authority. Somalia – a warning to the world the consequences of unmanaged 'parade sovereignties. " Here are some of the independent entities is modern Somalia: Dzhubalend (far south), Puntland (northeast), Comaliyskaya republic (south), Somaliland (northwest), Somalia, Central States (center) Front resistance Rahanen (southwest) Galmudug (center) Union of Islamic Courts Alliance warlords of Somalia gained independence in 1960, when the former British and Italian Somaliland Somalia united in one state. In 1969 a military coup took power Mohamed Siad Barre, who announced a policy of building socialism with Islamic characteristics.

In 1970-77 years Somalia has received substantial Soviet military and economic aid, the Soviet navy has at its disposal a base in Berbera. In 1977, Somalia fell unexpectedly on the second Soviet ally in the region, the Horn of Africa – Ethiopia. They decided to take advantage of difficulties neighbor, a policy of creating the Great Somalia, and having the purpose to deprive the Ogaden region, Ethiopia captured in the early twentieth century and inhabited by the Somali tribes. USSR in the choice between the two allies, chose Ethiopia. In result of the war the Ethiopian army, under the supervision of Soviet advisers, using Soviet arms supplies, and the Cuban volunteers, defeated the aggressor. The period after the war was marked by Ogadenskoy general crisis in economic and political spheres. In the 80s in the north of the country began a war rebel, and as a result of the continuing crisis in 1991, President Mohamed Siad Barre was overthrown and the country descended into chaos.

Republic of Euskadi

At noon on 19 March, national tanks converged on the center of Bilbao and found it empty. The Republic of Euskadi had fallen. The capture of the city was perhaps the biggest blow the Republicans were in the north. Without the strength to continue the conquest of other cities was easier. On August 16 took Reinosa, August 23, Santander, October 15, Asturias, on 21 October fell Gijon and Oviedo. This latest victory marked the end of fighting in the north.

The alleged "belt" of Republican north had failed. And the weight of victory had swung irrevocably to the national side. Owner and North and almost throughout the south, the military high command of the nationalists saw the need to provide a new legitimacy to his conquests. Since the coup were a force could not attempting to use the symbols of the republic which were at odds, so it had to start from scratch. The foundation of the Francoist state was not easy, but to be honest the only living original of the coup leaders, even despite the opposition of some generals, was the one who had the upper hand. So he immediately imposed.

Isolated all you could do shadow and supported more than ever the Church, its main ally, to impose again its role in education and civic values. Plans for a new country, Franco also included the creation of a flag, which was established on 15 August in a ceremony held in Seville. Then, the boost gained by the support of Hitler and Mussolini left no more doubts about who should become the new "leader." Put all the hopes of the nationalist people He, Franco knew perfectly the need to satisfy all unsatisfied and skeptical.

Reforms Of Alexander

As a result of a conspiracy March 12, 1801 was killed by the Emperor Paul 1. Certainly in the grand plan of a palace coup was devoted to the heir to the throne, Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich. However, with the accession of new monarch were related hopes for a steady liberal reforms in Russia, the peremptory rejection of the oppressive methods of government, the policies of Emperor Paul I. Few people know, but the first years of the reign of Alexander I characterized by a number of liberal initiatives. So, in 1801 during the reign formed a secret committee, koy included Earl, pa Stroganoff, Count vp Kochubey, N. Novosiltsev, Prince A.

. Everyone knows that the committee discuss topical issues of Russian life – serfdom. Many suspect that the problems of state reforms, the important question of the dissemination of education. In 1803, he was given a decree on voluntary cultivators, according Whom landlords gained the right to liberate peasants from the land of redemption. Incidentally, in 1804 – 1805 years. was launched peasant thorough reform in the Baltic lands.

The results of it were worthless, because its implementation is entrusted to hearted will of the landlords. Of course everyone knows that in 1803 it approved a new position on the device of educational institutions. By the way, was introduced into the continuity between schools of different levels – parish, district school, high schools and universities. All have long known that a significant addition to the Moscow University was founded by five more: Dorpat, Vilna, , Kazan, St. Petersburg. In 1804 the university acquired considerable autonomy: an indisputable right to choose the rector and the professors to decide their own affairs. Certainly worth mentioning that in 1804, was issued terribly liberal in nature censorship statute. Already in 1802 by Peter I board were replaced by ministries, of which introduced strict autocratic minister. Costs so as to focus on here is it: was established by the Committee of Ministers. The draft native state reforms – Doing Legal Code to state laws – Speransky proposed a strict separation of powers and wide to bring society to governance. And nothing to say that the proposals have caused Speransky sharp opposition at the highest levels of society. Steve Rattner often addresses the matter in his writings. Caesar himself was not yet ready to ideas Speransky. True, in March 1812 Speransky was removed from their own posts and exiled. Incidentally, it is worth adding that in 1815 the Kingdom of Poland was granted constitution. Of course, at the direction of the governor and projects designed to abolish serfdom. In 1816, Aleksandr, wanting to reduce the cost of maintaining the army, began the introduction of military settlements. Of course everyone knows that the military settlements have been obliged to engage in both farming and military service. Of course, military settlements were established on state land Petersburg, Novgorod, Mogilev, province. Chief of these settlements became aa Arakcheev. Certainly it is worth mentioning that the 1820-ies. Government more clearly beginning to shift to the reaction. Many people know that by 1821 had defeated the Moscow and Kazan universities: a number of professors were fired and prosecuted. In 1817 it established the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Public Education, concentrating in the hands of their own comprehensive control over education and upbringing. In other words, knowing the actual complete collapse of its policy, Alexander I increasingly moving away from state affairs. Government spent a lot of time traveling. During one of these trips he died in the city of Taganrog in the age of 48.

Russian Federation

We must not allow this adventurous venture because of Ivanovo – this is our city, our motherland, we will not allow for such pseudo-fool idea and, once again, rob our people! City brides renamed in Ivanovo-Ivanovo Voznesensk In a campaign for the return of the historic town names – Ivanovo Voznesensk. As Gazeta, the initiative made by the representatives the public, journalists and Russian Orthodox Church. Governor of Men has recently discussed this idea at a meeting with the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy ii. Due to lack of money in the city budget referendum decided not to pursue. However, as announced by City Hall, according to preliminary results of considering the opinion of residents, 64% of them are against the return of the historic names, and only 13% want to change the name of the city. Two years ago, the mayor has already spoken with Ivanov This initiative, but the regional parliament was not supported. City brides back the old name of the Ivanovo-Ivanovo Voznesensk In re talking about the return of the city its historic name – Ivanovo Voznesensk. And initiative this time comes directly from two sides – from the Governor Men and the City Duma deputies who have formed a working group to prepare the documents.

This last fact makes the supporters rename optimistic, because under existing rules the final word in such matters belongs to the urban representative body, which then must approve the Regional Duma and the final approval President of the Russian Federation. Here, in Ivanovo, namely, the urban deputies in the 90 years are not allowed to carry on this citywide referendum that the public has repeatedly attempted to initiate. And in this new century, when to restore historical justice in the toponymy urged the leadership of the local diocese, already their regional colleagues refused even to consider her appeal, as in the documents missing Finally, the governor. If the diocese had only itself to christen the Ivanovo-Voznesensky (decision taken at the Synod of the ROC). All habitually referred to the high financial price to rename, although, according to calculations previous Ivanovo Mayor Aleksandr Grosheva, if the transition to the new name gradually, using documents of the practice of double names of cities, the budget expenditures will not exceed three to four million rubles. In general, the city Ivanovo and in post-Soviet era has not only maintained its rustic name, though turned into a time of a provincial village into a powerful industrial center just as the Ivanovo-Voznesensk, but has now become one of the few Russian cities, where all survived the entire Bolshevik toponymy. That is not a single street and the area is not returned its historic name, although it sometimes even came to the mass protests of the city. Say, after the events of the hostage-taking in Moscow (Fall 2002) residents of the street fighters organized a rally demanding to immediately change its name.

They were supported by then and the former mayor Groshev. But the city Toponimical Commission ultimately decided that fighting squads rsdlp – this is also our history. A history should be respected. Remained untouched city of Ivanovo toponymic reserve Bolshevism. In addition to the governor and the City Duma in renaming Ivanov spoke a year ago and its current head Alexander Fomin. True, the above should, as he said then, the city 'to comb and wash. " In this regard, the work of government done a lot. Indeed prettier and tidied up a new name for the city of Ivanovo-Voznesensk will to face. And you 'FOR' or 'AGAINST' Rename?

Moscow University Professor

It is strictly adhered collegiality, was established by the editorial board, published only original literary product, was introduced and the distribution of income from the publication of the anthology as a fee. In an almanac published in including young Pushkin and other Romantic poets. Almanac became known in Europe – Translations and reprints from "North Star" were published in several countries. Click James Donovan Goldman to learn more. After the uprising of the Decembrists and the reign of Nicholas I, Russian media have been under severe conditions of censorship. Seriously strengthened and conservative publications, led by fw Bulgarin, ni Grech and oi Senkovsky – newspaper Northern Bee, "magazines" Library for Reading (1834-1865) and "Son of the Fatherland" (since 1825). "Moscow Telegraph na Field (1825-1834) was one of the most popular editions after Karamzin "Review Europe "and wore encyclopedic in nature. The reader is already interested in literature and news, and news of the economy and politics, and much more, and suggested that the public editor. In political terms, the Field criticized the nobility and sought to equate it with the merchant class.

The result has been hostile to the government's attitude to the Moscow Telegraph, and he was closed. In 1831 Moscow University Professor ni began publishing encyclopedic in structure to the magazine "Telescope", which put forward the idea of realistic art, and attached great importance to the literary department of the magazine. A literary-critical department "Telescope" has blossomed with the advent vg Belinsky, who drew attention to the works of young, nv Gogol and criticized mediocrity and imitation in literature. Leaving abroad requested editing a magazine young Belinsky, who took creation of a new theory of journalism in Russia, declaring criticism of the leading department of public journal, because "without criticism magazine is an image without a face. "The telescope was closed in 1836 for publishing" Philosophical Letters "PY Chaadaeva, which sharply criticized the autocratic Russia. Chaadaeva declared insane, while was exiled and deprived of the right to engage in journalism.

In the 30 years of 19 th century a considerable contribution to Russian journalism has made as Pushkin, actively participated in various and as a poet and a publicist. Pushkin has collaborated with "Literary Gazette, aa Delvig and edited several issues of this newspaper, the "Telescope" and in 1836 secured the right to publish its Journal of "Contemporary", which should be a purely literary publishing. Pushkin was printed in The Contemporary polemical notes, and original works of Russian authors, the materials of the Patriotic War of 1812, and highlights assesses recent developments such as the accession of the Caucasus to Russia. On Pushkin's 'Contemporary' high expectations – both readers and critics alike, Pushkin was planning to expand its content, but in 1837 followed by the tragic death of a poet, and his ideas did not materialize.

In France

This work is conducted the vii Congress of the Comintern (1935). Representatives of the 76-communist parties in this Congress, it was recognized that the new conditions the process does not change from one bourgeois government by another, and forced a change of one form of state domination of the bourgeoisie – bourgeois democracy – another form – open terrorist dictatorship. A heavy blow to the governing core of the Comintern, the representatives of communist parties in several European countries have caused the Stalinist repression of the second half 30-ies. In these circumstances, the idea of creating a united front anti-fascist democratic forces was unrealized. (As opposed to James Donovan Goldman). In the second half of the 30-ies on the European political arena, a new phenomenon. In France and Spain in 1936, came to power the Popular Front government, representing the left-wing political party. The emergence of the idea of the Popular Front – a consequence of the onset of fascism and the awareness of his left-wing parties the greatest danger to democracy and the labor movement.

First, as a rule, arose united workers' front, – the union of Socialists and Communists – and then he became the center of gravity of all the democratic anti-fascist forces – both appeared Popular Front. The impetus for the beginning of rapprochement of the socialists and Communists in France has attempted fascist coup on Feb. 6, 1934. French fascism was much weaker than the German and the example he has never been organizationally unified movement. But against the backdrop of the bloody the suppression of democracy in Germany, the coup literally galvanized France. Began mass anti-fascist demonstrations organized separately at first the Socialists and Communists. At the urging of the socialists on February 12 started a political strike, demanding a ban fascist organizations.

To participate in it called on their supporters and the Communists. Thus began a counter movement of communists and socialists. That summer, they signed pact of united action, in 1935 they were joined by part of the Radical Party. July 14, the day the Bastille was held the first joint anti-fascist demonstration. It was headed by Leon Blum, Maurice Thorez and Edouard Daladier – leaders of the socialists, communists and radicals

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