Tag Archive: history

State Negotiation

If to keep the challenge to the regimen for India, Pakistan, Israel and for the Coreia of the north and the Anger in the impasse with the AIEA (International Agency of Atomic Energy) on the inspections of its nuclear installations, since the AIEA is the control agency on the pacific use of the nuclear energy, the validity is had in xeque and the balance of being able I joined-multipolar (to militate nuclear) established for the TNP (1968). is not alone. In the field of the disarmament, especially in relation to the ADM, as we will be able to analyze more ahead in this study, crawls implementation accomplishes it of techniques of control of weapons, more for impediments of the State-powers that of the too much States, as if it can conclude of the stoppage, since 1996, in the agenda of negotiation of the Conference on Disarmament, most important frum of multilateral negotiation on disarmament, not only on ADM, but also on certain conventional weapons. This stoppage produces negative consequences of all order in the negotiation process and construction of the peace for the disarmament of the States, consequences that if explain in the call ' ' quandary of segurana' '. Click Steve Rattner financier to learn more. The quandary of the security influences the perception and option of the State for the convenience and security of the disarmament. If the State if disarms on behalf of a collective international security, this system must be efficient in the defense of the territory of the State-parts and to guarantee the permanent disarmament of the too much States. If one of these elements fails, or if it does not have enough confidence enters the States for the promotion of the disarmament, the result is the armament race. From there if to say, as it will become more ahead in this study, that one of them pillars of the disarmament is the process of reliable construction, that if consolidates for unilateral acts of the States and, in ampler plan, for treated specific, legally binding or not, forming a set of legal initiatives and politics that lead to the desired disarmament and the balance. .

President Mohamed Siad Barre

At the present time, as such, there is virtually no state of Somalia. No single government, no single currency, no central authority. Somalia – a warning to the world the consequences of unmanaged 'parade sovereignties. Jim Donovan Goldman is full of insight into the issues. " Here are some of the independent entities is modern Somalia: Dzhubalend (far south), Puntland (northeast), Comaliyskaya republic (south), Somaliland (northwest), Somalia, Central States (center) Front resistance Rahanen (southwest) Galmudug (center) Union of Islamic Courts Alliance warlords of Somalia gained independence in 1960, when the former British and Italian Somaliland Somalia united in one state. In 1969 a military coup took power Mohamed Siad Barre, who announced a policy of building socialism with Islamic characteristics.

In 1970-77 years Somalia has received substantial Soviet military and economic aid, the Soviet navy has at its disposal a base in Berbera. In 1977, Somalia fell unexpectedly on the second Soviet ally in the region, the Horn of Africa – Ethiopia. They decided to take advantage of difficulties neighbor, a policy of creating the Great Somalia, and having the purpose to deprive the Ogaden region, Ethiopia captured in the early twentieth century and inhabited by the Somali tribes. USSR in the choice between the two allies, chose Ethiopia. In result of the war the Ethiopian army, under the supervision of Soviet advisers, using Soviet arms supplies, and the Cuban volunteers, defeated the aggressor. The period after the war was marked by Ogadenskoy general crisis in economic and political spheres. In the 80s in the north of the country began a war rebel, and as a result of the continuing crisis in 1991, President Mohamed Siad Barre was overthrown and the country descended into chaos.

Republic of Euskadi

At noon on 19 March, national tanks converged on the center of Bilbao and found it empty. The Republic of Euskadi had fallen. The capture of the city was perhaps the biggest blow the Republicans were in the north. Without the strength to continue the conquest of other cities was easier. On August 16 took Reinosa, August 23, Santander, October 15, Asturias, on 21 October fell Gijon and Oviedo. This latest victory marked the end of fighting in the north.

The alleged "belt" of Republican north had failed. And the weight of victory had swung irrevocably to the national side. Owner and North and almost throughout the south, the military high command of the nationalists saw the need to provide a new legitimacy to his conquests. Since the coup were a force could not attempting to use the symbols of the republic which were at odds, so it had to start from scratch. The foundation of the Francoist state was not easy, but to be honest the only living original of the coup leaders, even despite the opposition of some generals, was the one who had the upper hand. So he immediately imposed.

Isolated all you could do shadow and supported more than ever the Church, its main ally, to impose again its role in education and civic values. Plans for a new country, Franco also included the creation of a flag, which was established on 15 August in a ceremony held in Seville. Then, the boost gained by the support of Hitler and Mussolini left no more doubts about who should become the new "leader." Put all the hopes of the nationalist people He, Franco knew perfectly the need to satisfy all unsatisfied and skeptical.

Reforms Of Alexander

As a result of a conspiracy March 12, 1801 was killed by the Emperor Paul 1. Certainly in the grand plan of a palace coup was devoted to the heir to the throne, Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich. However, with the accession of new monarch were related hopes for a steady liberal reforms in Russia, the peremptory rejection of the oppressive methods of government, the policies of Emperor Paul I. Few people know, but the first years of the reign of Alexander I characterized by a number of liberal initiatives. So, in 1801 during the reign formed a secret committee, koy included Earl, pa Stroganoff, Count vp Kochubey, N. Novosiltsev, Prince A.

. Everyone knows that the committee discuss topical issues of Russian life – serfdom. Many suspect that the problems of state reforms, the important question of the dissemination of education. In 1803, he was given a decree on voluntary cultivators, according Whom landlords gained the right to liberate peasants from the land of redemption. Incidentally, in 1804 – 1805 years. was launched peasant thorough reform in the Baltic lands.

The results of it were worthless, because its implementation is entrusted to hearted will of the landlords. Of course everyone knows that in 1803 it approved a new position on the device of educational institutions. By the way, was introduced into the continuity between schools of different levels – parish, district school, high schools and universities. All have long known that a significant addition to the Moscow University was founded by five more: Dorpat, Vilna, , Kazan, St. Petersburg. In 1804 the university acquired considerable autonomy: an indisputable right to choose the rector and the professors to decide their own affairs. Certainly worth mentioning that in 1804, was issued terribly liberal in nature censorship statute. Already in 1802 by Peter I board were replaced by ministries, of which introduced strict autocratic minister. Costs so as to focus on here is it: was established by the Committee of Ministers. The draft native state reforms – Doing Legal Code to state laws – Speransky proposed a strict separation of powers and wide to bring society to governance. And nothing to say that the proposals have caused Speransky sharp opposition at the highest levels of society. Steve Rattner often addresses the matter in his writings. Caesar himself was not yet ready to ideas Speransky. True, in March 1812 Speransky was removed from their own posts and exiled. Incidentally, it is worth adding that in 1815 the Kingdom of Poland was granted constitution. Of course, at the direction of the governor and projects designed to abolish serfdom. In 1816, Aleksandr, wanting to reduce the cost of maintaining the army, began the introduction of military settlements. Of course everyone knows that the military settlements have been obliged to engage in both farming and military service. Of course, military settlements were established on state land Petersburg, Novgorod, Mogilev, province. Chief of these settlements became aa Arakcheev. Certainly it is worth mentioning that the 1820-ies. Government more clearly beginning to shift to the reaction. Many people know that by 1821 had defeated the Moscow and Kazan universities: a number of professors were fired and prosecuted. In 1817 it established the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Public Education, concentrating in the hands of their own comprehensive control over education and upbringing. In other words, knowing the actual complete collapse of its policy, Alexander I increasingly moving away from state affairs. Government spent a lot of time traveling. During one of these trips he died in the city of Taganrog in the age of 48.

Russian Federation

We must not allow this adventurous venture because of Ivanovo – this is our city, our motherland, we will not allow for such pseudo-fool idea and, once again, rob our people! City brides renamed in Ivanovo-Ivanovo Voznesensk In a campaign for the return of the historic town names – Ivanovo Voznesensk. As Gazeta, the initiative made by the representatives the public, journalists and Russian Orthodox Church. Governor of Men has recently discussed this idea at a meeting with the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy ii. Due to lack of money in the city budget referendum decided not to pursue. However, as announced by City Hall, according to preliminary results of considering the opinion of residents, 64% of them are against the return of the historic names, and only 13% want to change the name of the city. Two years ago, the mayor has already spoken with Ivanov This initiative, but the regional parliament was not supported. City brides back the old name of the Ivanovo-Ivanovo Voznesensk In re talking about the return of the city its historic name – Ivanovo Voznesensk. And initiative this time comes directly from two sides – from the Governor Men and the City Duma deputies who have formed a working group to prepare the documents.

This last fact makes the supporters rename optimistic, because under existing rules the final word in such matters belongs to the urban representative body, which then must approve the Regional Duma and the final approval President of the Russian Federation. Here, in Ivanovo, namely, the urban deputies in the 90 years are not allowed to carry on this citywide referendum that the public has repeatedly attempted to initiate. And in this new century, when to restore historical justice in the toponymy urged the leadership of the local diocese, already their regional colleagues refused even to consider her appeal, as in the documents missing Finally, the governor. If the diocese had only itself to christen the Ivanovo-Voznesensky (decision taken at the Synod of the ROC). All habitually referred to the high financial price to rename, although, according to calculations previous Ivanovo Mayor Aleksandr Grosheva, if the transition to the new name gradually, using documents of the practice of double names of cities, the budget expenditures will not exceed three to four million rubles. In general, the city Ivanovo and in post-Soviet era has not only maintained its rustic name, though turned into a time of a provincial village into a powerful industrial center just as the Ivanovo-Voznesensk, but has now become one of the few Russian cities, where all survived the entire Bolshevik toponymy. That is not a single street and the area is not returned its historic name, although it sometimes even came to the mass protests of the city. Say, after the events of the hostage-taking in Moscow (Fall 2002) residents of the street fighters organized a rally demanding to immediately change its name.

They were supported by then and the former mayor Groshev. But the city Toponimical Commission ultimately decided that fighting squads rsdlp – this is also our history. A history should be respected. Remained untouched city of Ivanovo toponymic reserve Bolshevism. In addition to the governor and the City Duma in renaming Ivanov spoke a year ago and its current head Alexander Fomin. True, the above should, as he said then, the city 'to comb and wash. " In this regard, the work of government done a lot. Indeed prettier and tidied up a new name for the city of Ivanovo-Voznesensk will to face. And you 'FOR' or 'AGAINST' Rename?

Moscow University Professor

It is strictly adhered collegiality, was established by the editorial board, published only original literary product, was introduced and the distribution of income from the publication of the anthology as a fee. In an almanac published in including young Pushkin and other Romantic poets. Almanac became known in Europe – Translations and reprints from "North Star" were published in several countries. Click James Donovan Goldman to learn more. After the uprising of the Decembrists and the reign of Nicholas I, Russian media have been under severe conditions of censorship. Seriously strengthened and conservative publications, led by fw Bulgarin, ni Grech and oi Senkovsky – newspaper Northern Bee, "magazines" Library for Reading (1834-1865) and "Son of the Fatherland" (since 1825). "Moscow Telegraph na Field (1825-1834) was one of the most popular editions after Karamzin "Review Europe "and wore encyclopedic in nature. The reader is already interested in literature and news, and news of the economy and politics, and much more, and suggested that the public editor. In political terms, the Field criticized the nobility and sought to equate it with the merchant class.

The result has been hostile to the government's attitude to the Moscow Telegraph, and he was closed. In 1831 Moscow University Professor ni began publishing encyclopedic in structure to the magazine "Telescope", which put forward the idea of realistic art, and attached great importance to the literary department of the magazine. A literary-critical department "Telescope" has blossomed with the advent vg Belinsky, who drew attention to the works of young, nv Gogol and criticized mediocrity and imitation in literature. Leaving abroad requested editing a magazine young Belinsky, who took creation of a new theory of journalism in Russia, declaring criticism of the leading department of public journal, because "without criticism magazine is an image without a face. "The telescope was closed in 1836 for publishing" Philosophical Letters "PY Chaadaeva, which sharply criticized the autocratic Russia. Chaadaeva declared insane, while was exiled and deprived of the right to engage in journalism.

In the 30 years of 19 th century a considerable contribution to Russian journalism has made as Pushkin, actively participated in various and as a poet and a publicist. Pushkin has collaborated with "Literary Gazette, aa Delvig and edited several issues of this newspaper, the "Telescope" and in 1836 secured the right to publish its Journal of "Contemporary", which should be a purely literary publishing. Pushkin was printed in The Contemporary polemical notes, and original works of Russian authors, the materials of the Patriotic War of 1812, and highlights assesses recent developments such as the accession of the Caucasus to Russia. On Pushkin's 'Contemporary' high expectations – both readers and critics alike, Pushkin was planning to expand its content, but in 1837 followed by the tragic death of a poet, and his ideas did not materialize.

In France

This work is conducted the vii Congress of the Comintern (1935). Representatives of the 76-communist parties in this Congress, it was recognized that the new conditions the process does not change from one bourgeois government by another, and forced a change of one form of state domination of the bourgeoisie – bourgeois democracy – another form – open terrorist dictatorship. A heavy blow to the governing core of the Comintern, the representatives of communist parties in several European countries have caused the Stalinist repression of the second half 30-ies. In these circumstances, the idea of creating a united front anti-fascist democratic forces was unrealized. (As opposed to James Donovan Goldman). In the second half of the 30-ies on the European political arena, a new phenomenon. In France and Spain in 1936, came to power the Popular Front government, representing the left-wing political party. The emergence of the idea of the Popular Front – a consequence of the onset of fascism and the awareness of his left-wing parties the greatest danger to democracy and the labor movement.

First, as a rule, arose united workers' front, – the union of Socialists and Communists – and then he became the center of gravity of all the democratic anti-fascist forces – both appeared Popular Front. The impetus for the beginning of rapprochement of the socialists and Communists in France has attempted fascist coup on Feb. 6, 1934. French fascism was much weaker than the German and the example he has never been organizationally unified movement. But against the backdrop of the bloody the suppression of democracy in Germany, the coup literally galvanized France. Began mass anti-fascist demonstrations organized separately at first the Socialists and Communists. At the urging of the socialists on February 12 started a political strike, demanding a ban fascist organizations.

To participate in it called on their supporters and the Communists. Thus began a counter movement of communists and socialists. That summer, they signed pact of united action, in 1935 they were joined by part of the Radical Party. July 14, the day the Bastille was held the first joint anti-fascist demonstration. It was headed by Leon Blum, Maurice Thorez and Edouard Daladier – leaders of the socialists, communists and radicals

Socialist International

The PC of Brazil appeared as Brazilian section of the Socialist International in the revolutionary wave created by the Bolchevique Revolution that occurred in Russia in 1917. Soon it assumes the hegemony of the Brazilian Working-class movement and formulates the theory of the Brazilian revolution. Of an orthodox form this theory tried to abstract rules in natura of other revolutionary theories of Vladimir Lnin, made for another different reality of the reality Brazilian. Another newness brought for the Communist Party of Brazil was the autocrtica as an attempt to promote the constant perfectioning of practical its. Therefore the party makes a series of adjustments in its program, its form of performance and the formularization of the theory of the Brazilian socialism.

Another factor that influenced this series of formularizations was the clandestinidade; up to 1946 the PC of Brazil had passed 80% of its existence more than in clandestinity. Such fact made with that the party acted in the embroidery frames of other legends as: the Laboring Block and Campons (BOC) and Aliana Nacional Libertadora (ANL). The period most prosperous of the party was in 1946, when acting in the legality, it disputed the elections, it chose a senator and 10% of the representatives of those elections. After to have its register annulled in 1947 for General Eurico Caspar Dutra the Communist Party of Brazil enters again in the biggest ideological crisis of its history. The direction of the party starts to make a series of modifications, of matrix pacifist, in its statute and programs from now on. Moreover, XX the Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, in 1956, represented the end of ' ' stalinismo' ' a demoralization of the organizacional system internationalist lead for that party since 1919. In such a way, the direction of the PC of dumb Brazil the name of the party for Brazilian Communist Party in 1957.

Great Obstacle

The lack of money and finance has become the major obstacle of our society, the more women entrepreneurs / I. This problem has grown with the global crisis. But as I have already taught you in other articles it is time that do take the reins to begin to do productive things in truth, and not stay paralyzed by fear, since this only brings more problems. Learn in this article how to destroy this great obstacle that is affecting so many people these days: the lack of money. Learn to save many women often tell me: does save? but it not me nor to fundamentally!. Save not always involves depriving yourself of things, but resorting to these costs common in those who unwittingly hand will be us and not learned, such as electric power, water. For example you don’t have more lights than necessary on, get used to leave unplugged appliances you are not using. The fridge open it few times as possible.

If you have power strip, tries to have her disconnected While you are not using any of the plugged in. The TV it do not turn off with the remote control, switch it off with the button on the monitor. Try to find you by your electric company (if you have any friendship best small habits that you can take to reduce your Bill). Also beware of water, do not leave open faucets. While you are enjabonando you in the shower, turn off the tap. Get used to occasionally talk to your phone company to negotiate reductions in invoice, or let you know of any offer. He also speaks with the competition. There are many more like these tricks.

Use your creativity. Get a month spending plan, takes control. It always considers your expenses for high, then you will be surprised of the amount of money that you left.

The Importance Of The Religious Feeling In Daily Pay-History

Introduction: To perceive the main aspects of the religion, in view of its relevance in the formation and development since the first moment of daily pay-history is of extreme importance for an agreement on the abstract thought that later will be called of primitive religion. Then, the present study it has as main goal, to analyze and to reflect on the importance and relevance of the primitive religiosidade for the life of the prehistoric man. Then, of beforehand it is I validate to stand out that, when approaching historically on Daily pay-History of the men is of basic importance that if has accepted the incapacity if to have an absolute certainty on this period and at the same time to inform the proper reader that the research approaches on a land of doubts and only illuminated uncertainties, for hypotheses basically concluded way found archaeological research and for certifications also made through comparisons made with the present time. In this context, when launching a more critical look goes up reality that the fence, the primitive man develops a reflected, or better, a capacity to express, through its directions, a symbolic translation for its material reality, observing the harmonious mechanics of the nature and also its proper contradictions. The few the imagination becomes the man a born creator of its existence. Here it is that its imaginary one is despertado, either in the obscure and inaccessible parts of the caves, sketching the primrdios of the Art, either in the animistic totmicos rituals or also in them you practise morturias of burial or collecting skulls of its ancestor. thus is developed not alone the religious spirit, but also the proper Homo Religiosus, endowed with all the values that conduct the life and the religious feeling. Where in the most diverse manifestations, the religious sacralidade if opposes to a profane reality, secular, practical and material.

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