Prince Vladimir Odoevsky

Individuals, towns, villages and society also have the right open on its own initiative of the Poorhouse, and here in 1797, Paul I appointed his wife Maria Feodorovna leader of all social institutions. A new stage in the history of charity work. The entire 19 th century became time of rapid development of philanthropy in Russia. For example, the company visits the poor in St. Petersburg, founded in 1846 on the initiative of Prince Vladimir Odoevsky, attracted by the disadvantaged as a volunteer and sponsors. In the second half of the 19 th century has substantially expanded the practice of philanthropy and charity. Charitable Funds pooled around him more and more volunteers and benefactors: and the place of residence, and education level, and by type of employment (the Society of women's work, the Society of cheap apartments, etc.).

Appeared Sunday public schools with free training and voluntary work of teachers – their founders were convinced that the causes of poverty of the people in his ignorance. Thus, the charity amounted to enlightenment. The important characteristics for the existing charity system has a value of the fact that until 1912 the state pension in Russia accrue exclusively military and government officials. However, the insured legally obliged to pay pensions to 2.5 million workers and employees of the manufacturing and mining industries. Concern for poor, disabled and orphans also has its own history.

In 1682, had opened two almshouses for the disabled, the end of the century, their number exceeded 10, while in 1718 these institutions was 90 (including Sailor's Silence on Yauza). Graph Sheremetev founded the Hospice with a hospital for orphaned and needy (now Institute of Emergency Care. Sklifosovsky). When Alexander I, French doctor Hauy founded Russia's first institute for the blind, and after Patriotic War of 1812 appeared the newspaper "Russian invalid", created for the veterans and issued until the October Revolution. During the Crimean, Russian-Turkish and Russian-Japanese war were born the first community Sisters of Mercy. Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna and the famous surgeon Pirogov were pioneers of this movement, which later joined the Red Cross Society. After the Revolution charity could not be revived immediately. The State assumed the full responsibility for all social problems, so in theory the need for charity disappeared. In fact, it only intensified. Only in wwii to revive the tradition of voluntary donations, which went on defense needs, and to ensure that disadvantaged (though donations received at public expense, which was attributed to only a clumsy, primitive system of charity). Only in times of restructuring the citizens an opportunity to proactively participate in the social mutual aid. And it was a means of creating a civil society, and is not a means of facilitating the work of the state budget. Funds were created with the right to call themselves full-fledged charitable organizations. Today, most charitable organizations in Russia combine a collection. Also in Russia there are more than 70 major international charities.

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