North America

Why no shortage of those who claim its elimination: use proper names of each village (Kiche, Quechua, wedge, Sami, etc.) by eliminating the indigenous concept that generalizes and at the same time destroys our identity, i.e., build a world without indigenous peoples and recognize the names of peoples, as proposed in the conclusions of the meeting project villages indigenous of the Organization International Labour, 1996, in the city of Chimaltenango, Guatemala. The emergence of indigenous peoples as new political actors in the Latin American scenario, with a very particular dynamic as they had not had it during the centuries of Iberian colonialism suffered, is characterized by a set of dynamics that have no other social movements: 1) the claim by its ((((specific rights as indigenous peoples with their culture and their autonomy, 2) the territorialization of its presence, 3) the development of increasingly complex organizational structures, 4) the national dimension of their demands, 5) the relations that are taking their struggles with nation States where they occur. It could be said that it is an order generalized, from Chiapas to the Patagonia, the claim for the recognition of the right to difference, to recognize and respect their ethno-cultural specificity that is not reduced them to some social categories of the dominant capitalist society, as the peasants. Claims more solid and articulated some indigenous movements have been directed towards the approach of plurinational States. This points to the structural modification of the national States born after formal independence from the Spanish Crown in the early 19th century as large estates managed by native aristocracies without own project of nation as it happened, on the contrary, in the nascent American Union in North America, that from the beginning (by eliminating all indigenous peoples, forgive add), was raised as a real political and economic independence. In Latin America, where in general the indigenous peoples with some exceptions where they were virtually disappeared, as in Argentina and Uruguay continued resisting the conquest in a never-ending bid, these new approaches of plurinationality seek effective representation of them in modern Nations; Nations which gives the paradox which, having majorities of indigenous population that might not be totally assimilated or you doblegas, presented by States traced over liberal European models to ignore and marginalize indigenous peoples, States centered on the capital cities and that took the Spanish as an official language, always looking toward Europe or United States abominando of its Aboriginal composition.

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