Apart from trade and crafts in the city is actively developing culture and literature. Not affected by the Mongol-Tatar invasion, was the center of ancient Novgorod chronicles, , distribution Literacy and played a major role in the development of Russian literature and the arts., in the middle of xiii – middle of the xv century Novgorod became the center of the struggle with Sweden and the Livonian Order. July 15, 1240, Prince Alexander of Novgorod, together with warriors utterly breaks in the mouth of the Neva come to take Novgorod and Ladoga Swedish commander Ulf Fassi. The famous battle was later called the Neva, as the prince himself, which chronicles the people and gave the honorary name of Alexander Nevsky., XV-th Century goes to Novgorod under the sign of the struggle for independence. Vast lands were part of the Novgorod republic, its independence and of freedom people living here, are of great envy and indignation of the princes of Moscow. For a long time Novgorod successfully fighting the armies of Michael of Tver and Dmitry Donskoy, but in 1471 the life of the great ancient republic still cut off. On the river Shelon, in the villages and Skirino Velebitsy, a battle between Moscow's forces headed by Daniel and Novgorod militia under the command of the son of Martha Posadnitsy – Dmitry Boretsky in which the citizens of Novgorod defeated. Novgorod finally lost its independence and in 1478 together with all lands included in a centralized Russian state. In the same year, in commemoration of the eradication of 'Novgorod freemen' imperial decree lifted and sent to Moscow assembly bell, the future is shrouded in mystery and legends.
Archive for April, 2011
Individuals, towns, villages and society also have the right open on its own initiative of the Poorhouse, and here in 1797, Paul I appointed his wife Maria Feodorovna leader of all social institutions. A new stage in the history of charity work. The entire 19 th century became time of rapid development of philanthropy in Russia. For example, the company visits the poor in St. Petersburg, founded in 1846 on the initiative of Prince Vladimir Odoevsky, attracted by the disadvantaged as a volunteer and sponsors. In the second half of the 19 th century has substantially expanded the practice of philanthropy and charity. Charitable Funds pooled around him more and more volunteers and benefactors: and the place of residence, and education level, and by type of employment (the Society of women's work, the Society of cheap apartments, etc.).
Appeared Sunday public schools with free training and voluntary work of teachers – their founders were convinced that the causes of poverty of the people in his ignorance. Thus, the charity amounted to enlightenment. The important characteristics for the existing charity system has a value of the fact that until 1912 the state pension in Russia accrue exclusively military and government officials. However, the insured legally obliged to pay pensions to 2.5 million workers and employees of the manufacturing and mining industries. Concern for poor, disabled and orphans also has its own history.
In 1682, had opened two almshouses for the disabled, the end of the century, their number exceeded 10, while in 1718 these institutions was 90 (including Sailor's Silence on Yauza). Graph Sheremetev founded the Hospice with a hospital for orphaned and needy (now Institute of Emergency Care. Sklifosovsky). When Alexander I, French doctor Hauy founded Russia's first institute for the blind, and after Patriotic War of 1812 appeared the newspaper "Russian invalid", created for the veterans and issued until the October Revolution. During the Crimean, Russian-Turkish and Russian-Japanese war were born the first community Sisters of Mercy. Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna and the famous surgeon Pirogov were pioneers of this movement, which later joined the Red Cross Society. After the Revolution charity could not be revived immediately. The State assumed the full responsibility for all social problems, so in theory the need for charity disappeared. In fact, it only intensified. Only in wwii to revive the tradition of voluntary donations, which went on defense needs, and to ensure that disadvantaged (though donations received at public expense, which was attributed to only a clumsy, primitive system of charity). Only in times of restructuring the citizens an opportunity to proactively participate in the social mutual aid. And it was a means of creating a civil society, and is not a means of facilitating the work of the state budget. Funds were created with the right to call themselves full-fledged charitable organizations. Today, most charitable organizations in Russia combine a collection. Also in Russia there are more than 70 major international charities.
According to statistics, more than 70% of men educate other people's children. About 50% of that figure – a man entered into a relationship with a woman who already had children. Another third – men who live and raise their families in other people's children, not even knowing it. The rest – the adoptive parents and the head of foster families. Such figure during a social report on Jan. 25, 2009 announced Acting Chairman of the Committee for Social Policy vkopo "New" Alexander Sokolov.
On Ukraine has one of the best rates in Europe a natural pregnancy and childbirth. If Western countries indicators foster care due to the huge statistics of futility families, and they are forced to in vitro fertilization or creation of a foster family, in Ukraine, this statistic is created artificially – believe sociologists. We can not say that we have some reason for such a dedicated shocking data, rather a complex of reasons. This large number of divorce cases in Ukraine, and the pregnancy of persons who are not ready for family life and sexually active with multiple partners simultaneously, and the growing number of cases Pregnancy marginalized populations. About 95% of couples aged under 22 years who applied to the registrar on his own, take them back or are not on the process. It is worth noting that a large percentage of claims filed by because of pregnancy partner. Over the past years, we actually got a lower total statistics of abortions among those who are pregnant, but the problem of filling children's homes are not exhausted, but rather, on the contrary it become even more urgent.
The increase in social benefits and increased the number of cases of "child birth allowances, making a woman employee, who now for the performance of their civic duty to receive money. Brisk in the post-Soviet era urbanization of the population has become Another important root cause of increasing voiced statistics. Often, girls from rural areas to move to live in town, resort to junk pregnancy from those who are not ready to or does simulate pregnancy and from the city's boyfriend, and the biological father is a completely different person. Social workers in Ukraine have repeatedly made suggestions and amendments to the Ukrainian legislation, which would be managed by combining the efforts of the State and the third sector, to ensure a comprehensive approach to preservation of families. If we speak objectively, among scientists and government officials are prevalent and positive vision of education statistics, non-native children. In their appeals they ask only one question: if the new family gives the child what he needs, maybe it's not so bad? Who will take on an assessment of the statistics, recognize whether it is really shocking at the state level will make the effort to deal with – the answers to these questions, I think we know is not soon, but for now we can draw conclusions for themselves and be more careful, so then did not hurt hear the facts.
Created a perpetual motion machine – and this is not some kind of supernova discovery scientists! To date, there are more than 10 unrelated projects working Perpetuum Mobile. All data created perpetual motion machines are classified Governments of all countries. From the available unclassified data, it is obvious that the first perpetual motion machine was created during World War ii, scientists Nazi Germany, and finalized in 1945-1946 in the U.S., after the removal there of scientists and laboratories after the war. Development of Soviet scientists were successful only in the early 50-ies of xx century. But the result of the work of scientists and leaders of the country remained dissatisfied. This was due mainly to the fact that created by Soviet scientists had Perpetuum Mobile cap barely exceeds 100-105%, while a joint project of the German-American perpetual motion had efficiencies of over 140%.
Due to "good" intelligence work, in the second half of 1950 series European states have been able to recreate the projects of perpetual motion. Then, in the late 50's – early 60's hosted a conference in which the heads of state agreed not to use technology a perpetual motion machine. In subsequent years, some researchers enthusiasts have also repeatedly created their own perpetual motion machines, but the development of all of them were seized by government agencies and are strictly classified. Working principle of perpetual motion consisted of a closed loop, simulating a living organism. Due to this cycle, the engine continues to continuous operation, consuming only develop their energy and the energy that occurred as a result of interaction with environment (friction, heating and so on.) just gave the energy that exceed 100% efficiency. The only reason that zasekretili all the information about perpetual motion and did not allow for mass application, was the fact that with the transition to a new kind of engine will no longer be a need for energy resources (oil, gas, etc.). that would seriously undermine the global economy, and would have ruined a number of countries, living through the sale of energy. So it is hardly in the world there is still something that people have not researched. Most likely it's just hidden from others.